Robert Palmer was the Director of Democratic Governance, Culture and Diversity at the Council of Europe until July 2012. In this role, he managed programmes and projects concerned with cultural policy and action, cultural heritage, diversity, intercultural dialogue, democratic governance and conflict resolution across 47 countries. His previous roles have included being Director of two European Capitals of Culture (Glasgow in 1990 and Brussels in 2000), a Director of the Scottish Arts Council, Director of Cultural Affairs for the City of Glasgow, and theatre director and policy adviser to various national governments and arts bodies. Now, he is an independent expert consultant working on projects connected with festivals, cultural policy, cultural regeneration of cities, and the development of the creative economy, across several continents. He has over 30 years direct experience related to the creation and management of events, ranging from small community celebrations to large-scale international festivals. His most recent book is “Eventful Cities: Cultural Management and Urban Revitalisation” (Elsevier, 2010).